Line of Sight
- Determining Line of Sight Between Units on the Same Level of Elevation
- Firing Along Hex Edges
- Determining Line of Sight Between Units on Different Levels of Elevation
- LOS Exceptions
- Determining Line of Sight Along a Hex Edge
- Line of Sight (same elevation)
- Line of Sight (different elevation)
- Line of Sight (LoS Examples)
Although a target unit may be within range of an attacking unit, the attacking player must still confirm that the target unit is within line of sight (“LOS”). That is, the attacker must confirm that there is no blocking terrain between the two units. Units
do not block line of sight.
Determining Line of Sight Between Units on the Same Level of Elevation
If there is no elevation difference between the attacking and the target unit, simply trace the straight firing line (using a ruler or a piece of paper) between the center of their two hexes (i.e., the hex of the firing unit and the hex of the target unit). If there is no blocking terrain between these two points, a clear line of sight is established and the attack may proceed. If the firing line, at any point, intersects a hex containing blocking terrain, no LOS can be established and the attacking unit is not eligible to attack.
Blocking terrain includes woods hexes, building hexes, and any hex of a higher elevation than that of the two units.
Note that the entire hex of a blocking terrain hex blocks LOS, regardless of the actual artwork on the map board.
Other effects (such as smoke markers) may also cause a hex to block LOS.
Blocking terrain does not block LOS to units in that hex. For example, if a squad is in a woods hex, that woods hex does not block LOS to itself. Only blocking terrain hexes between the two units block LOS.
Before playing your first game, make sure to read about terrain and its effects on pages 45 through 47 of this rulebook. Terrain effects are also summarized on the back of the Scenario Guide.
Firing Along Hex Edges
If the firing line between the target unit and the attacking unit is traced exactly along the edge of a series of hexes, the firing player must shift the firing line either slightly to the left or right, away from the hex edge, so that it does not trace the hex
line exactly. If shifting the line in both of these directions causes the LOS to be blocked, then no LOS can be established and the target unit is not eligible for attack. If the line can be shifted so that a clear LOS can be established in one (or both) of the two directions, then LOS can be established and the attack may proceed. See the “Determining Line of Sight Along a Hex Edge” diagram and examples C and E in the “Line of Sight” diagram for more information.
Determining Line of Sight Between Units on Different Levels of Elevation
When the attacker and the proposed target are at different elevations, determining LOS is a bit trickier. In this situation, follow the rules below.
When two units are of different elevations, the attacking unit may be able to fire “over” some blocking terrain between the units. To determine whether LOS exists between units at varying elevations, rather than checking whether there is blocking terrain between the two units, players must ensure that the lower unit is not located in a blind hex. If the lower unit is indeed located in a blind hex, LOS cannot be established and there can be no attack.
To determine whether the lower unit is in a blind hex, do the following:
- Select the unit on the lowest elevation, and trace a straight firing line between the two hexes. If there is no blocking terrain between the two, LOS is clear and the attack may proceed.
- If there is blocking terrain between the two, determine which blocking terrain hex is closest to the unit on the lowest elevation: This is the closest obstruction. (When firing along hex lines, use the rules on page 22 to determine the closest
- If the difference in elevation between the two units is 1, the two hexes behind (from the unit on higher elevation’s perspective) the closest obstruction are blind hexes. If the unit in the lower elevation is located in either of these two blind hexes, then there is no LOS, and the attack may not proceed.
- If the difference in elevation between the two units is 2, the one hex behind the closest obstruction is a blind hex. If the unit in the lowest elevation is located in this blind hex, then there is no LOS, and the attack may not proceed.
The closest obstruction may be a blocking terrain hex, as when establishing LOS between units at the same elevation. Also, when dealing with varying unit elevations, a hill the same level or lower than the unit on the higher elevation is also considered blocking terrain for the purpose of determining blind hexes.
Blocking Higher Elevation
As when two units are at the same elevation, if the firing line between them is traced through an elevated hex higher than either of the two units, LOS cannot be established and the attack cannot proceed.
The following two rules are exceptions to the LOS rules.
Regardless of elevation difference, two adjacent units always have LOS to each other.
Firing Across a Plateau
If the unit on the higher elevation must fire (or be fired upon) across an adjacent hex at its same level, it is considered to be hidden by a plateau, and no LOS can be established. Thus, the higher unit must be on the “edge” hex of a hill in order to establish LOS to a lower target, and vice versa.
Determining Line of Sight Along a Hex Edge
LEFT: Since there is blocking terrain on both sides of the firing line, LOS is blocked.
RIGHT: Although the firing line runs along the hex edge of a blocking terrain hex, LOS is clear because there is no blocking terrain on the other side of the firing line.
When determining line of sight, it is possible that the firing line will be drawn directly along the edge of one or more hexes. When this happens, line of sight is not blocked unless there is blocking terrain on both sides of the line. When LOS runs along a hex edge, draw two new lines parallel to the main line, shifted slightly in either direction. If both of these new lines pass through blocking terrain (the example on the upper left), then LOS is blocked. If one or both of these lines does not cross blocking terrain (the example on the upper right), there is a clear line of sight between the two units.
Line of Sight (same elevation)
This diagram shows an American squad determining LOS to several potential targets on the same elevation as the attacking unit.
- Blocking Terrain: The American squad does not have line of sight to squad A because there is blocking terrain (woods) in the firing line.
- Clear Line of Sight: The American squad has clear line of sight to squad B. There is no blocking terrain in the firing line.
- Firing Along Hex Lines: The American squad’s firing line to the target follows the map’s hex lines, so the American player must shift the line in either direction to determine LOS. The American squad has line of sight to squad C, as there is blocking terrain on one side of the firing line, but the other side is clear.
- Blocking Higher Elevation: The American squad does not have line of sight to squad D, since a hex of higher elevation than both units is in the line of fire.
- Firing Along Hex Lines: The American squad’s LOS follows the map’s hex lines. The American squad does not have a line of sight to squad E, since there is blocking terrain on both sides of the line of fire, as indicated by the red arrows.
Line of Sight (different elevation)
This diagram shows an American squad determining LOS to several potential targets. The American squad is on level 1 terrain, while the German squads are all on level 0 terrain. Being on higher elevation allows the American squad to see over blocking terrain, although the terrain still has some “blind hexes” immediately behind it.
- Plateau Rule: Squad A is not within line of sight because the line of fire to squad A is traced through an adjacent hex hill of the same elevation (a plateau).
- Firing Along Hex Lines: Squad B is within line of sight because blocking terrain hexes are not located on both sides of the line of fire.
- Blind Hex: Squad C is not within line of sight because it is in one of the blind hexes created by the closest obstruction. Since the hill is the closest obstruction to the lower unit, and the difference between units is one level, any 2 hexes hidden
behind the hill are blind hexes. Had the American unit been on a level 2 terrain, only 1 hex behind the hill would have been blind, and Squad C would have been in LOS.
- Firing Past Blind Hexes: Squad D is within line of sight because it is not in one of the blind hexes created by the closest obstruction.
Line of Sight (LoS Examples)
The location of all blind hexes are shown in red and yellow. Blind hexes that are in yellow are due to the plateau effect rule.
This is the basic map without any hexes marked. It is include as a baseline as some of the terrain becomes obscured when a color overlay is applied. There is only 1 terrain overlay used, a single hex tree.
Shows all of the blind hexes from a level 2 vantage point.
Shows all of the blind hexes from a level 1 vantage point. This map shows the effect of the plateau rule (yellow hexes).