X72 Nepheris (149 BC)
3rd Punic War
Scipio Africanus & the Campaign of Nepheris 149 BC
Romans vs Carthaginian
The “Other Scipio” that is: Scipio Aemilianus Africanus: (From Wikpedia)
Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus (185 - 129 BC) was a leading general and politician of the ancient Roman Republic. As consul he commanded at the final siege and destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, and was a leader of the senators opposed to the Gracchi in 133 BC. He was born the younger son of Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus, the conqueror of Macedonia, and fought when he was 17 years old by his father's side at the Battle of Pydna, which decided the fate of Macedonia and made northern Greece subject to Rome. He was adopted (see Adoption in Rome) by Publius Cornelius Scipio, the eldest son of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, and his name was changed to Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus. He therefore was the nephew of Publius Cornelius Scipio's wife, Aemilia Tertia.
The “Other Scipio” & The Destruction of Carthage in the 3rd Punic War 149-146BC
In 151 BC, a time of disaster for the Romans in Spain, he voluntarily offered his services in that province and developed an influence over the native tribes similar to that which Scipio Africanus, his grandfather by adoption, had acquired nearly 60 years before. In the next year an appeal was made to him by the Carthaginians to act as mediator between them and the Numidian prince Massinissa, who, supported by a party at Rome, was incessantly encroaching on Carthaginian territory. In 149 BC war was declared by Rome, and a force sent to besiege Carthage. In the early operations of the war, which went altogether against the Romans, Scipio Aemilianus, though a subordinate officer, distinguished himself repeatedly, and in 147 BC he was elected consul, while yet under the legal age, in order that he might hold the supreme command. After a year of desperate fighting and splendid heroism on the part of the defenders he conquered Carthage, and at the Senate's bidding leveled it to the ground. In 146 BC "Scipio the Younger", as he was known, razed Carthage (no peoples remained) ending the Third Punic War. On his return to Rome he celebrated a splendid Triumph, having also established a personal claim to his adoptive agnomen of Africanus.
Historical Background of the Campaign:
(the selection below is from Appian of Alexandria) [§102] Manilius undertook an expedition to Nepheris against Hasdrubal, which Scipio disapproved of because the road was flanked by mountain crags, gorges, and thickets, and the heights were occupied by the enemy. When they had come within 500 meters of Hasdrubal, and to the bed of a river where it was necessary to go down and up again, in order to reach the enemy, Scipio urged him to turn back, saying that another time and other means would be more propitious for attacking Hasdrubal. The other tribunes, moved by jealousy, took the opposite view and held that it savored of cowardice, rather than of prudence, to turn back after coming in sight of the enemy, and that it would embolden him to attack them in the rear. Then Scipio gave another piece of advice, that they ought to fortify a camp on the hither side of the stream, to which they could retreat if they were overpowered, there being now no place where they could take refuge. The others laughed at this, and one of them threatened to throw away his sword if Scipio, instead of Manilius, were to command the expedition. Thereupon Manilius, who had not had much experience in war, crossed the river and on the other side encountered Hasdrubal. There was great slaughter on both sides. Finally Hasdrubal took refuge in his stronghold, where he was safe and from which he could watch his chance of attacking the Romans as they moved off. The latter, who already repented of their undertaking, retired in good order till they came to the river. As the crossing was difficult on account of the fewness and narrowness of the fords, it was necessary for them to break ranks. When Hasdrubal saw this he made a most brilliant attack, and slew a vast number of them who were more intent upon flight than upon defending themselves. Among the killed were three of the tribunes who had been chiefly instrumental in urging the consul to risk the engagement. [§103] Scipio, taking 300 horsemen that he had with him and as many more as he could hastily collect, divided them into two bodies and led them, with many charges, against the enemy, discharging darts at them and retreating by turns, then straightway coming back at them and again retreating, for he had given orders that one half of them should advance by turns continually, discharge their javelins, and retire, as though they were attacking on all sides. This movement being constantly repeated without any intermission, the Africans, thus assailed, turned against Scipio and pressed less heavily on those who were crossing. The latter hurried across the stream and after them came Scipio with his men under a shower of darts and with great difficulty. At the beginning of this fight four Roman cohorts were cut off from the stream by the enemy and took refuge on a hill. These Hasdrubal surrounded, and the Romans did not miss them until they came to a halt. When they learned the facts they were in a quandary. Some thought they ought to continue their retreat and not to endanger the whole army for the sake of a few, but Scipio maintained that while deliberation was proper when you were laying out your plans, yet in an emergency, when so many men and their standards were in danger, nothing but reckless daring was of any use. Then, selecting some companies of horse, he said that he would either rescue them or willingly perish with them. Taking two days' rations, he set out at once, the army being in great fear lest he should never return. When he came to the hill where the men were besieged he took possession of another eminence hard by and separated from the former by a narrow ravine. The Africans pressed the siege vigorously, making signals to each other and thinking that Scipio would not be able to relieve his friends on account of the excessive fatigue of his march. But Scipio, seeing that the bases of the two hills curved around the ravine, lost no time but dashed around them and secured a position above the enemy. They, finding themselves surrounded, fled in disorder. Scipio did not pursue them, as they were much superior in numbers. [§104] Thus Scipio saved these men also, who had been given up for lost. When the army at a distance saw him returning safe, and that he had saved the others contrary to expectation, they shouted for joy and conceived the idea that he was aided by the same deity that was supposed to have enabled his grandfather Scipio to foresee the future. Manilius then returned to his camp in front of the city, having suffered severely from not following the advice of Scipio, who had tried to dissuade him from the expedition. When all were grieved that those who had fallen in battle, and especially the tribunes, remained unburied, Scipio released one of the captives and sent him to Hasdrubal, asking that he would give burial to the tribunes. The latter searched among the corpses, and, recognizing them by their signet rings (for the military tribunes wore gold rings while common soldiers had only iron ones), he buried them, thus thinking to do an act of humanity not uncommon in war, or perhaps because he was in awe of the reputation of Scipio and thought to do him a service.
Roman Army: (Free Set-up as detailed below, Sets up First, Moves First)
Advance Guard: x2 Light Infantry, x1 Medium Cavalry, x2 Auxillia, x2 Medium Infantry x1 Leader (Tribunes): The Advance Guard sets up in any passable hex on Map 2 in the C and D hexrows
Main Army: x2 Medium Cavalry, x3 Medium Infantry, x3 Heavy Infantry x2 Leaders (Scipio and Manilius): The Main Army sets up in any passable hex on Map 2 in the A and B hexrows. Scipio must start stacked with a Medium Cavalry unit.
Carthaginian Army: (Free Set-up as detailed below, Sets up Second, Moves Second)
Main Army: x1 Light Infantry, x1 Auxillia, x3 Medium Infantry, x1 Light Cavalry, x1 Medium Cavalry x1 Leader (Hasdrubal) Set-up in any hexes on Map 1 except the A, B and C hexrows.
Skirmishers: x2 Light Infantry x1 Auxillia Set-up in any hexes on Map 1 except the A, and B hexrows.
Stronghold Garrison: x1 Auxillia, x1 Light Cavalry, x1 Medium Infantry x1 Leader (Mago) ---Set-up on any Rampart or Camp Tiles on Map 1. The Stronghold Garrison may not move on the 1st & 2nd Carthaginian Player-turns.
Command: 5 Cards
Command: 5 Cards
Carthaginian Sudden Death Victory: 9 Banners scored in the normal way
Roman Sudden Death Victory: Happens the instant that 5 Roman units occupy Rampart/Camp hextiles.
Roman Mission Victory: The Roman Player has to have 10 Roman units/leaders on hexrows “E, F, G, H, or I” of Map 1 at the end of any Carthaginian Player-turn, then only after he has accomplished this first part of the mission he then must exit ALL his surviving units/leaders from Row “A” of Map 2 without the Carthaginian reaching his 9 Banner sudden death victory condition. Once all Roman units and Leaders are exited in this way the game ends in a Roman Victory.
Note that in this scenario the Roman Player never scores Banners and the Carthaginian units that have been eliminated may usually return to play on a later turn (see special rules below) being recycled back on to the map at the option of the Carthaginian Player.
Special Scenario Rules:
All Carthaginian & Roman Leaders may cancel a retreat or a sword hit if present with the unit. Units on both sides involved in close combat or battle-back with the support of a Leader may only count one helmet hit amongst those rolled to inflict a hit on an opposing unit, unless Scipio or Hasdrubal is the supporting leader---then up to two helmet hits may be counted.
The Roman “Tribunes” Leader may only support the unit that it is stacked with in close-combat or battle-back.
Units and the Rally Card: No unit can be rallied to beyond four blocks or its strength at the start of the game whichever is less. If a Player rolls “swords” when attempting to rally he may freely chose which unit gets a block back.
Medium/Heavy Foot Non-combat moves: Medium or Heavy Foot units on both sides ordered to move with any card except “Double Time” or “Line Command” may move two hexes as long as they do not start or end or pass through hexes adjacent to enemy units, or enter fordable river hexes.
Carthaginian Libyan/Numidian Light Cavalry: On Battle-back only these units hit on swords. Their normal retreat distance per Flag hit taken is 2 hexes instead of the usual 4.
Carthaginian General Withdrawal Option:
The Carthaginian Player at the start of his player-turn, on any player-turn after his third may, may once per game, declare a “General Withdrawal” in place of executing a normal player-turn. ALL that player’s units & Leaders not located in a camp or rampart hex conduct a normal retreat of from one hex to three hexes, the exact distance is determined by the Carthaginian. The units & Leaders retreating are retreated normally by the Carthaginian player in any order he wishes, and suffer a one block loss if they are unable to retreat at all. Once the General Retreat is done the Carthaginian player selects three retreated units, that retreated the full three hexes, to each gain back one lost block (up to their initial strength only).
Return of Eliminated Carthaginian units to the map:
Previously Eliminated Carthaginian units may return to the map through the use of section cards by the Carthaginian Player. Up to two Eliminated Carthaginian units (including up to one cavalry unit) may return to the map per Carthaginian Player turn. Each unit the Carthaginian decides to return to the map is placed on map in lieu of ordering one Carthaginian unit via a section card. Eliminated Carthaginian units may only return to the map in empty fortified camp (G3 and G6) or map-edge hexes from I1 to I13 on Map 1 that are not adjacent to a Roman unit. Units placed on the map cannot be ordered that same turn they arrive and do not have to be placed in the section of the card that was used to return them to the map. During the course of a single scenario no more than one Carthaginian Light Cavalry and one Carthaginian Medium Cavalry can return to play. Infantry units by contrast can be recycled through an unlimited number of times. Eliminated or Evaded off map Carthaginian Leaders never return to play.
Roman Cavalry Discipline, Scipio’s Missile option, and Move Limitations:
Roman Medium Cavalry units stacked with or adjacent to Scipio may conduct missile fire just as if they were Light Cavalry units. Roman Medium Cavalry units retreat only 2 hexes per Flag taken. Roman Cavalry units may not conduct ordered moves, momentum moves, close-combat attacks, or missile attacks into camp or rampart hexes.
Roman Medium/Heavy Foot Level 2 Hill ‘Taken Refuge’ Option:
After the accomplishment of the first part of the Roman mission (10 Roman units/leaders on hexrows “E, F, G, H, or I” of Map 1), the Roman Player has the option going forward to declare any Roman heavy and/or medium foot units not adjacent to enemy units, that have not moved or attacked that player-turn, and are currently located on Level 2 Hills to have ‘taken refuge’ and are therefore “making a stand’ in that hill hex.
Such declarations on a case by case and unit by unit basis are made at the end of any Roman Player-turn just before a new card is drawn.
Units that have ‘taken refuge’ have the following advantages and disadvantages of that status:
a) They may not conduct ordered moves or momentum moves to leave the hex they have ‘taken refuge’ in until they are ‘relieved’ via Play of a Leadership card (see relief rule below). They can be activated, however, for close combat against adjacent enemy units.
b) Units that have ‘taken refuge’ receive back one eliminated block at the instant they ‘make their stand’ to a maximum of the four initial blocks. A unit that is already in ‘taken refuge’ status cannot be declared again to be in that status (until ‘relieved’ on a future player-turn).
c) Units that have ‘taken refuge’ can be attacked via missile fire by Carthaginian units that have not moved. Non-moving units may only roll one die in missile fire vs. the ‘taken refuge’ unit. Moving Carthaginian units may not missile fire vs. a ‘taken refuge’ unit.
d) Units that have ‘taken refuge’ battle-back with one additional dice and ignore the first sword hit inflicted upon them if defending against a close-combat attack.
e) Units that have ‘taken refuge’ must ignore all Flag results inflicted upon them and can never be ‘outflanked’. They cannot voluntarily take Flag hits.
Relieving Units that have ‘taken refuge’: Units that have ‘taken refuge’ can be ‘relieved’ from that status only by being ordered & activated by play of a Leadership card—They must then immediately move off the hex in a normal ordered move that player-turn. Units that have been ‘relieved’ may not re-enter ‘taken refuge’ status on the same player-turn they were relieved. A unit that went into ‘taken refuge’ status at the end of the previous Roman Player-turn may not be relieved during the very next Roman Player-turn.
Roman Exit from the Map:
Roman units and leaders may voluntarily leave the map by exiting from hexes A1 to A13 inclusive on the map-edge of Map 2 only after he has accomplished the first part of his mission to get 10 units/leaders to hexrows E to I on Map 1. Roman Units/Leaders that start their own player-turn occupying these 13 map-edge exit hexes & that are ordered by the Roman Player via a section card only may voluntarily exit the map at the player’s option. Unit/Leaders exited voluntarily never count as lost for the Banner count and can never return.
Roman Exit Restrictions:
Manilius may not voluntarily exit the map if the exits for that player-turn will result in more than eight Roman units being left on the map at the end of that player-turns move. The Scipio Leader block may not voluntarily exit the map if the exits for that player-turn will result in more than two Roman units being left on the map at the end of that player-turns move. Roman Leaders that start their player-turn stacked with an exiting unit leave with that unit if that unit is ordered via a section card, and may not violate the restrictions that apply above.
Outflanking---This is an easy way of introducing facing and flanks to the game with little fuss—it can be retrofitted to other scenarios where appropriate:
A unit is said to be “Outflanked” if it is surrounded in all six adjacent hexes by either enemy units, or hexes adjacent to an enemy unit. The presence of friendly units or impassable terrain does not negate an “Outflanked” situation in any way. Units on the board edges (and not surrounded by six adjacent hexes) cannot be “Outflanked”.
Effects of being Outflanked: “Outflanked” units when battling back roll only half the normal number of dice they would be normally entitled to rounded up—to a maximum of only two dice—“Outflanked” units when battling back never hit on helmet rolls even if supported by a leader. A unit’s “Outflanked” situation is judged at the instant it battles back. Roman Units that are in ‘taken refuge’ status (see above) on a Level 2 Hill can never be ‘outflanked’.
If a player’s Army Leader (or in the Roman case: Manilius and/or Scipio) is still on the map he may, at the start of his own player-turn, choose to discard three cards from his hand and redraw three more cards in lieu of executing a regular player-turn ---this may only be done in place of taking a normal player-turn (the normal player-turn is skipped over and the enemy player now has the option to conduct a normal player-turn or do a discard for his hand). Neither Player can conduct this discard option during their first four Player-turns of the scenario.
Terrain Special Rules:
Terrain Notes: The Romans start the game in a river valley (on Map2) and work their way upwards onto the rough plateau (on Map 1) where the Carthaginian army base and stronghold is located.
Fordable River Hexes: Units conducting an ordered move must stop when they enter a fordable river hex. Units in a fordable river hex close-combat attack or battle-back out of the hex at minus one (-1) dice from normal. Close-combats and Battle-backs into such hexes are done at normal dice.
Level 1 and Level 2 Hill Elevations: The maps now, in effect, have contour lines of hexes showing different elevations. Basically there are three Terrain elevations in the scenario: Level 0: which includes all clear and river hexes on Map 2. Level 1: which includes all Level 1 Hills on Map 2 and all hexes on Map 1 other than Level 2 Hills, and Level 2: which includes all Level 2 Hills on Map 1.
Elevation effect on close-combat and battle-back: If a unit is close-combating or battling-back against a unit at a higher elevation (or level) the “normal” maximum dice that unit may use is minus one (-1) normal. If a unit is close-combating or battling-back against a unit at a lower elevation (or level) the “normal” maximum dice is used. If both units are on the same level and there is no other terrain considerations the units would use their standard dice as dictated by the rulebook and these scenario rules.
Elevation effect on Missile Fire: Missile Fire obviously cannot go through a hex(s) that is entirely on a higher elevation than the firer.